Thursday, 30 October 2014

Scotland's missionary tapestry

It seems that the stitchers of Scotland have been very busy lately, putting together a tapestry of record-breaking length. Have a look here at Scotland's Tapestry.

In a related project, a tapestry of the Scottish diaspora is still in production. I hear there is a plan to have one or more panels concerning Scots who have been influential in Africa, and that in particular there is a discussion about who to commemorate in the former Rhodesias. A panel will probably contain a single image that is somehow linked to the life of a memorable Scot. You can see more about the Scottish diaspora tapestry project here.

Although they are not in the business of collecting lists of names, this is a quick attempt to put together some Scottish names in my part of the world.

Although most of my books don't tell where people came from, I am able to provide some missionary names, people associated with the United Free Church of Scotland (UFCS). See also Bishop Charles Mackenzie, also famous in Malawi.

The UFCS mission was proposed by Dr James Stewart (of Lovedale mission in South Africa, b. Edinburgh 1831) and Sir John Kirk in 1874, in memory of David Livingstone, shortly after he died, although it had been discussed for some years prior to this. The first mission party reached the southern shore of Lake Nyasa (Malawi) in 1875 to found a station at Cape Maclear, and later at "Livingstonia",  Stewart's suggested name. Another group of men founded a mission at the place they christened Blantyre, Malawi.

Their influence extended from the western shores of Lake Malawi into North Western Rhodesia, through Mwenzo and Kawimbe (near Abercorn) and as far as Chitambo's village (where Livingstone's heart was buried). Later their scope in NW Rhodesia was limited by other missions to this area, but they nevertheless left a great legacy. Many of the early doctors in Northern Rhodesia came from the UFCS as well as the Universities Mission to Central Africa (UMCA).

[Larger copy of map here. The underlined capitalised names are Livingstonia Mission Central Stations, the lowercase underlined names are out-stations, the dashed underlined names are, curiously, Dutch Reformed Section of Livingstonia Mission stations. Map from [1]]

A notable worker at Livingstonia was David Kaunda, who later founded Lubwa mission in Northern Rhodesia in 1908. David was the father of Kenneth, the first president of Zambia. Mission schools educated many early African leaders.

Below are some names associated with the UFCS and other missions in Northern Rhodesia, where I have been able to tell that they are Scottish, or at least born in Scotland (in some cases marked with a question mark, if not clear). I have a little more information on some of these people (and a lot on Arnot). Most of them were stationed in more than one place.

Unless stated otherwise, all names are associated with the UFCS. PB = Plymouth Brethren; LMS = London Missionary Society; PMMS = Primitive Methodist Missionary Society; SAGM = South Africa General Mission; SJ = Society of Jesus (source [2]):

Alexander, Thomas Thomson b. 1881 Penicuik. Opened Senga station 1914.
Arnot,  Frederick Stanley; b. Glasgow 1858, Katanga and NW Rhodesia (and elsewhere)  (PB)

Brown, Alexander b.1872, studied in Aberdeen
Brown, Annie ? b. 1887 possibly b. Glasgow, Mwenzo 1916
Brown, David McCullogh, b. 1880 Falkirk, d. Lubwa 1947

Campbell, Dugald, ? b  1870?, lived in Glasgow, Katanga 1893, later Nigeria
Carson, Alexander, b, 1850 Stirling, Lake Tanganyika and Central Africa Mission, Fwambo 1892
Chisholm, James A., b. 1872, ordained in Inverness, married MacGilvray; d Mwenzo 1933
Crawford, Daniel, b. 1870 Gourock, founded Luanza mission (PB)
Cunningham, Hugh ? b. 1869, lived in Kirkcaldy

Dewer, Alexander ? Mwenzo 1893

Grant, Margaret b.1892 Coatbridge, Livingstonia, Mwenzo

Halliday, Alexander b. 1887 Perceton, Livingstonia, Mwenzo, Karonga... married Janet Fulton 1921
Henderson, John Mathieson, b. 1863 Ecclefechan, married Catherine Young Riddell 1902
Howie, John Struthers ? b 1882, attended church in Greenock, married Mary Gilmour 1915 d. Dollar S.

Innes, Francis Alexander b. 1875 Skene, later west Africa, d. Alloa 1944

Lammond, William b. 1876 Glasgow, Bronze medal of Royal African Society, MBE (PB)
Laws, Dr Robert, b 1851 Aberdeen, original Livingstonia mission, d 1934
Lawson, Agnes T. ? married Charles MacKinnon, magistrate at Fife, Northern Rhodesia, 1907

McCallum, Peter ?  d. 1931 Hampshire
MacDonald, Alexander b 1879 Swordale, married Ruth Mary Livingstone Wilson 1920, d Edinburgh
McFarlane, Wilfrid, b 1878 Edinburgh, military cross WWI (LMS)
McGill, Andrew Haugh b. 1885 Dumfries (SAGM)
Mackay, James George b. 1860 Inverness, went to Madagascar, also Kambole (LMS)
MacKendrick, George b. 1869 Wishaw d. Niamkolo 1901
McMinn, Robert Donald b. 1870 Dalquharren, ordained Livingstonia 1906, Shiwa Ngandu... translated Bible into ciBemba [3], d. South Africa 1956
Martin, Jessie ? possibly from Ballgate? Mwenzo 1905
Masterson, Christina ? Lubwa 1922, married Rev. H. S. Kelp, Nigeria
Masterson, John b 1878 Edinburgh, Chikuni (SJ)
May, John b. 1866 Saltcoats, d. 1901 Kawimbe (LMS)
Meldrum, James ? d 1928, worked at Mwenzo, later Malawi
Moffat, Malcolm (son of the famous Robert Moffat) b 1870 Kuruman, South Africa; married Maria Martin Jackson b 1868, from Glasgow. Three prominent sons in Northern Rhodesia, d Kalwa 1939
Mowat, Gavin Henry b 1882 Leith; Chavuma 1923-1927; d 1950 (PB)
Murray, William M. b Sutherlandshire, married Miss Sutherland in 1905, d Scotland

Pottie, Michael, Transvaal farmer, originally from Scotland, d Kasenga 1916 (PMMS)

Scott, Robert ? Glasgow?
Service, Ruth b 1894 Paisley, MBE 1955
Smith, James ? b 1898 Attended Bible Training Institute in Glasgow, later Zambesi Industrial Mission
Stewart, James (Dr), returned Lovedale 1878

Wright, Robert Stewart b 1858 Edinburgh, lived Newcastle-upon-Tyne, d 1926 New Zealand (LMS)

Another list

Here is a further list of Livingstonia Missionaries (p.357-359), from [1], not necessarily Scottish. Date of appointment is given first in brackets:

Aitken, James H., teacher (1890) d. 1894
Aitken, George (Mrs) (1890) invalided 1898

Bain, Alexander J. (1883) d. 1889
Baker, William (1875) Royal Navy Reserve
Benzie, George, (1878) master of Ilala, d. 1880
Black, William (1875) d.1877
Boxer, Ernest, A., (1900) medical, Bandawe

Chisolm, James A. (Mrs), (1900)  medical, Mwenzo
Crooks, Thomas (1875)
Cross, Rev. D. Kerr (1885)
Cross, Mrs (the first) d. 1886

Dewar, Rev. Alex (Mrs), (1893) Karonga FRGS

Elmslie, Rev. Walter A (Mrs)., (1884) Ekwendeni

Fairley, George, (1880) master of Ilala, invalided 1882
Fleming, Miss M. J., nurse , (1900) Livingstonia
Fotheringham, Rev. D. (1890) resigned 1893
Fraser, Rev Donald, (1896) Ngoniland

Gauld, James, builder (1900) Livingstonia
Gowans, R, (1881) master of Ilala d. 1883
Gossip, Robert, bookkeeper, (1886) later A.L.Co. Glasgow
Gunn, John, agriculturalist (1875) d. 1880

Henry, Rev George (1887) d. 1893
Henderson, Rev. James (Mrs) (1895)
Henderson, Walter J., builder (1896)
Henderson, John. M., (1896) teacher Karonga
Hannington, Rev. Robert, (1881) invalided 1882, later in Constantinople
Harkess, William, (1880) engineer of Ilala, joined A.L. Co. 1882

Innes, Frank A., (1899) Karonga

Jackson, Miss Maria, nurse (1897), to be married 1900
Johnston, George, carpenter (1875)

Koyi, William, (1876) from Lovedale d. 1886

Macdonald, Roderick, carpenter (1892) invalided 1894
Macgregor, W. Duff (Mrs), carpenter  (1892)
Macgregor, John, carpenter (1899) Livingstonia
Macgregor, Donald, agriculturalist (1891), invalided 1894
Macintosh, Hugh, carpenter (1886) d. Jan 1887
Martin, Miss J., (1900) nurse  (honorary), Livingstonia
McAlpine, Rev. A. G. (1892) Bandawe
McCallum, Peter (Mrs), 1881 Bandawe
McCallum, Miss Margaret (1897), to be married 1900
McCurrie, John B. (1886)
McEwen, William O. 1884 d, 1885
McFadyen, John, engineer (1875)
McIntyre, Maurice, teacher (1886) d. 1890
Miller, Archibald C. (1876), weaver d. Zambezi
Morrison, W. (1891) recalled by 1901
Moffat, Malcolm, agriculturalist (1894)
Munro, Donald, 1881 builder
Murray, William McKay, carpenter (1888)

Ngunana, Shadrach, 1876 from Lovedale, d. 1877
Ntinitili, A. Mapas, 1876 from Lovedale, invalided 1880, d. 1897

Paterson, J.A. 1878 engineer
Prentice, Rev George, (1894) Kasungu, Mwasi's

Ramsay, Rev. J. C.  (1896) invalided 1898
Reid, William B, 1878 seaman
Riddell, Alexander, agriculturalist (1875), later Australia
Robertson, W. Govan (1891) resigned 1896, later LMS
Roby-Fletcher, A. W. (1897), d. 1898
Rollo, George A. (1885) d, Dec. 1885
Ross, Robert S., engineer (1876) left 1883

Scott, Archibald C. (1891) resigned 1896, later Port Elizabeth
Scott, Robert (1898) resigned 1900
Scott, William 1883 invalided 1886
Simpson, Allan, blacksmith (1875), later A.L.Co.
Smith, John A., 1881 teacher Blantyre
Steele, Rev. George (1890) d. 1895
Steven, Hugh, carpenter (1894) d. 1895
Stewart, James (1877) d. 1883 (another person to Dr James Stewart) FRGS
Stewart, Miss Lizzie A., teacher (1894)
Stuart, Charles teacher (1887) invalided 1900 
Sutherland, William (1900) Livingstonia
Sutherland, James, 1880 agriculturalist d. 1885

Thomson, William, printer (1889)

Waterston, Miss M.D., 1878 later Cape Town
Wauchope, Isaac Williams, 1876 from Lovedale, invalided 1877, later ordained

Williams, George, 1882 from Lovedale resigned 1888

Young, E.D.,  R.N., led first expedition (1875) d. 1896


[1] "Daybreak in Livingstonia", Jack James, Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1901

[2]  "Christian Missionaries and the creation of Northern Rhodesia, 1880-1924", Robert Rotberg, Princeton University Press, 1965

[3] Personal Communication, Andrew Rodger 2007

Sunday, 1 June 2014

Big Gold 6

If you are a Zambian at home or an expat in exile dreaming of Zambian skies you will be aware that Zambia is rapidly approaching its 50th independence anniversary on the 24th October, 2014. There will no doubt be many commemorative activities and much ink spilled over how well or badly the country has done in its short life. For my own part, I am wondering what I can put on this blog for the occasion and I thought it might be an opportunity to move some materials I've been hosting elsewhere, where they never really belonged. Here is some audio material I digitised from my record collection.

This is a single from the Big Gold 6 Band, who were formed in the 1960s and were originally called the Lusaka Radio Band. They were the resident band at the Inter-Continental Hotel in Lusaka at one point. One of the founding members was Alick Nkhata, at one time director of Zambia Broadcasting Services.

They were named after the brand of cigarette, Player’s No.6, whose manufacturer sponsored the band.  I don't know how they came to be singing for UNIP, but it seems that musicians such as the late Batolemeo Bwalya and Alick Nkhata were the draw cards at UNIP rallies. "People who had no interest in politics were drawn to UNIP rallies, not to listen to political speeches, but to listen to the duo belting out liberation songs which they rendered in Sinjonjo, Kwela or Township Jive." (Source:

Lest we forget, here’s a sample of some great campaign music, on a single labelled UNIP-1.

The first is "Go with UNIP" in English.
And then we have the same song in Nyanja, "Tiyende Pamodzi ndi UNIP".

My memory is that we got our copy of this in the early 70s, but I am not sure exactly how old it is. It must be post-independence anyway, given the lyrics.
Vote and remember what UNIP has done for Zambia
From the date of independence up to the present day
Vote and remember President Kenneth Kaunda
With his true leadership, You are going ahead with UNIP

More primary Schools, more secondary schools (UNIP, Yes!)
New hospitals throughout the country (UNIP, Yes!)
University of Zambia, International Airport (UNIP, Yes!)
Peace, progress, stability (UNIP, Yes!)
Good roads throughout the country (UNIP, Yes!)
Kafue hydro scheme and Kafue textiles (UNIP, Yes!)

So remember when the time comes to vote for UNIP chances
In the Local Government elections, so go ahead with UNIP
Now we have the oil pipeline, Nakambala Sugar Estates
Ndola Copper Refinery, all bacause of UNIP

Zambia Railways new diesel train (UNIP, Yes!)
Local industries, more jobs for all (UNIP, Yes!)
Zambia Railways new diesel train (UNIP, Yes!)
Local industries, more jobs for all (UNIP, Yes!)
And back when I hosted this elsewhere, Edwin Nyirenda got in contact and provided me with the lyrics of the Nyanja version of the song:
Sankani ndi kukumbukila, Nchito UNIP ya gwila mu Zambia
Kucokela pa tsiku la ufulu, Kufikila tsopano
Sankani ndi kukumbukila, A President Kenneth Kaunda
Ndi u sogoleli wao wa bwino, endani pa tsogolo ndi UNIP.

Ma primary schools ndi ma secondary schools (UNIP, Yes!)
Vipatala va tsopano mu Zambia yonse (UNIP, Yes!)
University ya Zambia ndi International Airport (UNIP, Yes!)
Mutendele mu dziko ndi kukhala bwino (UNIP, Yes!)
Miseo ya bwino mu Zambia yonse (UNIP, Yes!)
Kafue Hydro Scheme ndi Kafue textiles (UNIP, Yes!)

Kumbukilani nthawi izabwela, kusanka a imilili a UNIP
Mu ma Local Government elections, pitani pa tsogolo ndi UNIP
Tsopano tili ndi oil pipeline, Nakambala Sugar Estates
Ndi Ndola Copper Refinery, zonse izi ndi UNIP

Zambia Railways Sitima Sitima ya tsopano (UNIP, Yes!)
Mamangidwe a tsopano ndi nchito kwa onse (UNIP, Yes!)
Zambia Railways Sitima Sitima ya tsopano (UNIP, Yes!)
Mamangidwe a tsopano ndi nchito kwa onse (UNIP, Yes!)

And a little bonus. Here is a version of the evergreen Tiyende Pamodzi, written by president Kenneth Kaunda during the independence struggles. It was reissued in this pop song version in the 1980s. KK appeared on television in a music video, miming badly, but it's quite a nice version of the song.

Sunday, 5 January 2014

Christians of the Copperbelt

Here is a surprising find -- a recent book on the internet archive, in full: Christians of the Copperbelt. For the purposes of this blog, the bonus is that the book has an index including a list of names of people who were influential in the early church on the Copperbelt of Northern Rhodesia.

This account by John V. Taylor and Dorothea A. Lehmann was published in 1961 as part of the World Mission Study series. The book is based on an eight and a half month study undertaken in 1958 and particularly at Nchanga Mine in Chingola and in the township of Kansuswa near Mufulira. Although mainly about the Copperbelt, the authors also worked in rural areas elsewhere in the country, including Northern and Luapula Provinces. The authors say that the time they allowed for their work was too little and that suspicion of political motive hampered their success in interviewing local people. Nevertheless, there will be much of interest here to anyone with missionary roots, to help understand the story of the growth of the Christian church in Zambia, particularly at the time of the transition to independence, and to help understand the impacts of urbanisation. Also of interest is the study of Alice Lenshina's Lumpa Church before its bloody clash with UNIP just before independence in 1964.

One of the more interesting tables for me is this one showing where and when various missions were operating in the territory:

Missionary organisations in Northern Rhodesia

I tried to read this book on-line and failed, then made a Kindle version, but still failed... at least, trying to read it and
make notes on a tablet has not worked for me, so I am just going to skip the analysis and post the names in the index.

My frustration in trying to read on a tablet whilst making notes also led me to write some software to generate my own index of sorts. I am sure I have made some mistakes, but I think the software-generated index may still be useful, so I offer it (without page numbers, I haven't worked on that yet) here. The software-generated index contains OCR errors, which I have not tried to fix, as knowing what these errors are may actually help you to find a reference in the book you would otherwise miss. (I'd have posted the actual index here, but blogger can't cope with this amount of text, so it's at dropbox.)

I hope to return to that code one of these days and see how I might refine it. All it is trying to find is proper nouns, in fact. For example, here is a software-generated index by relevance, with the most frequently occurring words identified as proper nouns at the bottom of the list.

And here is the index (minus page numbers) given in the book itself, with some corrections for OCR errors and with a few cross references added:

Persons, churches, organisations and places in the index

Adamson, Mr
African Holy Spiritual Church
African Mineworkers' Union
African National Congress
African Reformed Church
AME Church
Anglican Church (see also UMCA)
Arnot, F.
Attwater, D.

Bana ba Mutima
Banda, J. 
Bedford, F.
Bell, Bishop G. K. A. 
Blood, A. G.
Booth, J.
Bradley, K. 
Brethren in Christ 
Broken Hill
Buell, R. L.
Bwana Mkubwa

Capricorn Africa Society 
Carson, Dr 
CCAR (Church of Central Africa in Rhodesia)
Childs, S. H. 
Chilembwe, J. 
Chintankwa, P.
Chisholm, Dr J. 
Christian Council of Northern Rhodesia
Christian Missions in Many Lands See Plymouth Brethren
Church Missionary Society
Church of Christ
Church of Scotland Mission 
Coillard, F.
Comrie, W.
Copperbelt Christian Service Council
Cripps, A. S.
Cross, A. J. 

Dalgleish, A. 
Daly, Mr 
Davis, J. Merle 
Deerr, W. 
Dewar, A. 
Doke, C. M. and Miss O. C. 
Doke, J. J.
Dougall, J. W. C.
Draper, W. 
Dube, J. L. 
Dupont, Pere J. 
Dutch Reformed Church

Ellis, W. 
Epstein, A. L.

Fisher, W., and family
Fison, J. E.
Forster, Sir John
Fort Jameson
Fort Rosebery
Franciscan Tertiaries
Fraser, Dr Agnes
Fraser, D. 
Fraser, George
Free Church of Scotland Mission

Gann, L. H. 
General Missionary Conference of Northern Rhodesia
Goodall N. 
Gore-Browne, Sir Stewart 
Graham-Harrison, Miss 
Griffiths, A. J. 
Griffiths, J.
Groves, C. P. 
Guillebaud, C. G.

Hailey, Lord 
Harris, C. 
Hawkins, D. 
Hewitt, G. 
Hine, Bishop J. E.

Icely, B. 

Jehovah's Witnesses
Jesuit Fathers 
Johnston, Sir Harry 
Jones, Picton 
Jourdain, Fr 
'Jesus Fanoily'

Kafulafuta, 16, 34
Kalene Hill
Kamungu, L.
Kamwana, E.
Kasenga, B.
Katilungu, L.
Kaunda, K.

Laws, Dr R.
Lenshina, Alice
Lewanika, King
Lewanika, G.
Lewin, J.
Lisulo, G.
Livingstone, David
London Missionary Society 
Lumpa Church

MacLennan, Mr
MacPherson, F.
Marwick, M. G.
Mason, Philip
May, Bishop A.
Methodist Missions (see also AME Church)
Mines African Staffs' Association 
Mitchell, J. C.
Mitchell, Sir Phillip
Moffat, Sir John
Moffat, Mr and Mrs Malcolm
Moffat, Mr
Morris, Colin
Moore, R. J. B.
Mott, John R.
Murray, A.
Mushindo, P.
Mwanalesa (Mwana lesa)
Mweru, Lake

New Apostolic Church 
Nielsen, E. 
Nightingale, Mr 
Nkimibula, H. 
Ntara, S. 
Nutter, H. C. 
Nyasa Industrial Mission

Oliver R.

Paris Evangelical Mission
Parr, M. 
Peng, Wang Shih 
Philips, Mr
Price, T. - see Shepperson G.
Plymouth Brethren 
Prain, Sir Ronald
Purves, A. D.

Quick, G.

Rain, S. 
Rhodes, Cecil 
Richards, Dr A. I. 
Richmond, A. H. 
Roman Catholic Church (see also Jesuit Fathers and White Fathers)
Ross, Mr and Mrs

Salisbury, Lord
Salvation Army 
Scott, Dr A.
Seventh Day Adventists 
Sharpe, A.
Shepperson, G., and Price, T. 
Smith, Edwin
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
Soulsby, J. G. 
South Africa General Mission 
South African Baptist Mission
South African Presbyterian Church
Spillett, H. W.
Sundkler, B. C. M. 
Syrier, Mrs M. B.

Taylor, Bishop Selby
Thompson, C. H.
Thompson, J.
Thompson, Wardlow

UCCAR (United Church of Central Africa in Rhodesia)
UMCA (Universities' Mission to Central Africa)
UMCB (United Missions in the Copperbelt)
USCL (United Society for Christian Literature)

Van der Post, L.
van Doom, C. L.
Vlek, T. C. B.

Watchtower Society - See Jehovah's Witnesses
Watt, J. A. R.
Welensky, Sir Roy
White Fathers (see also Ilondola)
Wilberforce Institute 
Wilson, G. and M.
Wood, Miss E. A.
Woodruff, H. W.
Wright, S.

Yamba, D.
Young, C.
Young, W. P.

Zambia Congress



Adultery, mystical danger of
Chiefs, ritual position of
Childhood, rural, urban
Church attendance  collections, co-operation, finance, statistics, political participation by
Concession treaties
Copper deposits
Discarding death (ukupose mfzoa)
Education fear of
Family structure
Industrial advancement of Africans
Industrial disturbances
Land alienation
Marriage, inter-tribal, rural, urban
Marriage laws
Medicine (muti)
Middle class
Ministry, indigenous, training
Multi-racial clubs
Ng'anga (doctor)
Ngulu (spirits)
Nostalgia for rural life
Nyasalanders, as leaders
Prophet movements
Responsibility of Africans in the Church
Responsible government
Segregation, in society, in the Church
Sunday schools
Tribal elders
Tribal representatives
Tribes, matrilineal, patrilineal,religious affiliation of
University of Salisbury
Value judgments
Welfare societies
White collar workers
White man's religion
Women's organizations

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