Wednesday, 29 December 2010

A Time to Mourn (Lumpa Church)

A Time To Mourn (A personal account of the the 1964 Lumpa Church revolt by John Hudson). My copy is from Bookworld Publishers, Lusaka, 1999.

The episode in Northern Rhodesian history is well known and there are several accounts in print.

In 1953 the Lumpa Church was founded as an offshoot sect of the local Catholic church in Chinsali district. Its founder, Alice "Lenshina" (Regina) Lubusha , was "a failed catechumen" according to this account.

Something happened to Alice: an illness, a vision, a hallucination perhaps, in which she believed she had died and risen from the dead four times, and had seen God. After a period in which she remained in her original church, during which perhaps all the trouble might have been avoided, she established a breakaway church with a focus on confession of witchcraft. (Of course, failure to confess might mean guilt. This may have contributed to the quick rise in her church membership.) Crucially, also, the church was against participation in politics or membership of political parties, and this would ultimately lead to conflict and bloodshed. The time, of course, was leading up to the independence of Zambia, and UNIP members were militant. In the final stages, roughly two months before independence in October 1964, the army moved in on Lumpa Church settlements.

The Lumpa church members were not only suspicious of outsiders and political party members, but openly hostile. There had been skirmishes and a few deaths and reprisals before the real massacres began. Lumpa church members stopped sending their children to school. In addition, the church had defied local law and set up villages without permission of local chiefs. This disregard and isolation led to suspicion and aggression. Animosity had grown between church members and UNIP supporters.

Kenneth Kaunda certainly tried to avert the crisis, but perhaps at that point things had gone too far. An agreement brokered by KK was drawn up for church settlements to disperse, but this was not honoured or enforced. The church began to develop end-time tendencies, believing that their time on earth was short. They stopped cultivating food and had to resort to raids on neighbouring villages instead.

The Lumpa church members were mostly armed with sharp sticks, spears and pangas, whilst the Northern Rhodesia Regiment (NRR) were armed with automatic rifles. In spite of there having been a couple of causalities on the army side (mainly during their attempts to negotiate) there was no contest in the end. As many as a thousand Lumpas were killed. With independence approaching, the killings did not perhaps receive the kind of attention that they might have done in less tense circumstances. The government was more concerned with preparation for independence. However, the authorities concerned are left looking pretty bad, in my opinion.

Surprisingly, after such a disastrous event and although Alice was sent to prison and died a mysterious death in 1978 under house arrest, the Lumpa (excelling/exceeding) church still survives today.

I came across some quite horrific footage on-line, of an attack on a Lumpa Church, I believe the main church building, judging by its size. Why this footage was shot and how it has survived to see the light of day are a mystery to me. One would imagine it would have been destroyed.... These pictures can't bring home the full horror of it. I have avoided the worst images. The violence perpetrated against people who clearly are not attempting to fight is completely unjustifiable.





A White Father was trying to help the injured.

One can only say that 'a time to mourn' is quite right....

Here are some of the names in the book:

Baker, Lt col. Bill p43, 47, 110-11
Bell p72
Bennet, Peter p60
Bird, J.D.O. (police) p41-42
Chansa, constable (killed) p41, 87
Chibolya, Maini p78, 108-9, 128
Chikwa, chief p.47
Chisolm, Dr James A. p75
Chitimukulu, paramount chief p29
Chiwale, chief p72
Clay, Gervas p74, 78, 135
Drysdale, p72
Ellis, Senior inspector p38
Forbes (1895) p71
Gillies, inspector p46
Gore Brown, p131-34
Hannah, John (D.C. Chinsali) p40, 86
Hannah, J.W. p41-44, 46 failed to get surrender
Hoare, Major Paul p94
Hone, Sir Evelyn p54
Hopwood, detective inspector p38, 43
Hudson, Rowland p134
Jones, "Ropesole" p73
Jordan, inspector (killed) p42, 43
Kakokota, Fr p29
Kameko (Lumpa boy chastised by UNIP uncle) p38
Kamfwimbi, chief p128
Kapele, Alfred p62-3
Kapwepwe, Simon p55
Kaunda, David p.11 @ Lubwa mission
Kaunda, Helen p56
Kaunda, Kenneth p54-6
Kaunda, Robert p56
Kihn, Dr Ron p87-8
Lalonde, Fr (White fathers, Isoka) p88-9
Large, Philip p81
Legum, Colin p56
Lehman, Dorothea (missionary and author) p21
Ling, Colin (DO Lundazi) p47, 95-6
Lester, assistant inspector p38
Lubusha, Alice Mulenga, a.k.a. Lenshina p12 (whole book)
Lungu, Jacob (ex army) p36
Macpherson, Revd Fergus p12-15
McKinnon, Charles p72

McMinn, Revd Robert p19
Miller (Nyala area) p72
Moir and Stewart, African lakes company19th C.
Morris, Revd Colin p35
Moss, Mr P. p43 (district officer)
Mpapa, constable p40, 42
Mubanga, Chief p38
Mulenga, Petros Chitankwa p12, 20, 23, 29, 40 (husband of Alice)
Mumba, Joseph (church member) p29
Mushindo, Paul p15, 19
Musukanya, Valentine & Flavia p77 
Musukwa, Timothy p77-8, 81, 82, 85, 99-103, 111, 119-129
Muyombe p82-5
Ngandu, Lupele p62
Nichelya, Musuku p62-3
Nkula, Chief p29,30
Northey, General E. (WWI) p112, 116
Paishuko, p48-51
Reid, Brigadier T.N.S. p117
Robins, John p77, 106-8, 123
Shimulopwe, assistant inspector p38
Sinkamba, Gideon p78, 109-10, 128
Smith, Derek (killed) p40, 87, 102
Smith, lieutenant p89
Stacey, Charles (solicitor) p60
Standaloft, assistant inspector p42
Stevenson, James p71 19th c.
Sumaili, Lameck p60
Thompson, Hugh p60
Trant, Dr Hope p78, 87-9
Von Lettow Vorbeck, Paul (WWI) p112, 116

Young, "Bobo" p72

Friday, 17 December 2010

Empire Online

This list from Empire Online
contains "the names of some of the key people in the database."

Many of these names will have connections to southern and central Africa

Abbe Gunga     Elphinstone     Outram
Abdool Messeeh's     Emerson     Ouvry
Abdul Baha     Eustace     Oxley
Abdul Masih     Everett-Green     Palmerston
Abdul Rahim     Eyre     Pandit Nehru
Abel     Falconbridge     Panta
Acland     Farquhar     Park
Aggrey     Fawcett     Parkes
Agirre     Fay     Parkinson
Prince Albert     Fenn     Parry
Albert     Ferdinand     Pascoe
Aldridge     Field     Passfield
Alkaid of Jillipee     Firminger     Paterson
Allabasca     Fisher     Paxton
Alley     Fleming     Pearce
Allinson     Fletcher     Peck
Ameer Ali     Forbes     Peel
Anderson     Forquhar     Perry
Andrew     Forster     Philip
Angas     Fremantle     Phillipson
Ansell     Frere     Picarro
Anson     Froude     Pigott
Apianus     Fry     Pigwys
Archbishop of Canterbury     Furneux     Pillai
Arlington     Galton     Pitt
Aurangzeb (Oram Rebb)     Gambier     Pizzaro
Azariah     Gandhi     Plaatje
Bacon     Garcia     Pochahuntus
Baden-Powell     Gardiner     Pomare
Baijnath     Gardner     Pomarre
Baikie     Garrett     Popham
Ballantyne     Gates     Portman
Banerjee     Gaunt     Porter
Banks     Gelsthorpe     Postans
Bannister     Gibson     Poulaho
Barbour     Gilbert     Powhaton
Baring     Gladstone     Praed
Baring-Gould     Glenelg     Pratt
Barker     Goldie     Prince Albert
Barnes     Goohoogong     Prizgar
Barnley     Gordon     Ptolemy
Baskerville     Ormsby-Gore     Radisson
Bateman     Gottlieb     Ral
Battersby     Goulburn     Raleigh
Beecham     Grand Vizier of Turkey     Read
Behn     Gray     Reed
Bell     Grant     Rewa
Bennett     Great Mughal     Rex
Berry     Greenway     Rhenius
Berthelot     Grenville     Rhodes
Besant     Grey     Ringeltaube
Bian     Gribbell     Ringrose
Bird     Griffiths     Ritchie
Bhore     Groue     Roberson
Bisset     Nares Chandra Sen-Gupta     Roberts
Blaeu     Gutiero     Robertson
Bleck     Gwynne     Robinson
Bligh     Hack     Rogers
Blumhardt     Hadfield     Rolls
Bokwe     Haggard     Roman
Bonnerjee     Haidar Ali     Rosende
Booth     Haldane     Rowlandson
Bokwe     Hall     Roy
Borlase     Harrington     Russell
Bougainville     Harriott     Salazor
Bourne     Harris     Salim
Bowen     Harrison     Salter
Bowley     Hastings     Sances
Boxwell     Havelock     Sarasvati
Boyle     Hawkins     Satthianadhan
Brangwyn     Henry the Navigator     Sawkins
Brightly     Henty     Sawyer
Brind     Herbert     Schnarre
Brisbane     Hill     Scholes
Broughton     Hixon     Schreiner
Brown     Hoare     Cammerer
Bruce     Hobson     Seeley
Bryce     Hodges     Seetaram
Bryden     Hole     Selkirk
Buchan     Hollander     Selous
Buchanan     Holles     Shah Jehan
Buck     Homney     Shah Sonia
Buckley     Hondius     Shaikh
Bull     Hooper     Shapland
Bundles     Horstead.     Sharp
Bungham     Hughes-Hallett     Sharpeigh
Burchett     Hunt     Shaw Bash
Burman     Hyder Ally     Shaw
Burton     Impey     Sheikh Raji Oo Din
Bushnell     Ingram     Sheldon
Butler     Innes     Shepherd
Buxton     Ironside     Sheridan
Byron     Isabella     Shewkat Pasha
de Bry     Jameson     Shiya
Cabot     Jephson     Skene
Caddick     Johnston     Skertchly
Calcott     Joe Little Chief     Sly
Caldwell     Jolobe     Smart
Camelford     Jones     Smith
Campbell     Jourdain     Smithhurst
Cantino     Juon de Ampudia     Snelgrove
Cardoso     Kaempfer     Solander
Carey     Kearns     Sommers
Carlyle     Kell     Sorabji
Carnarvon     Kendall     Sowden
Carpenter     Kenyatta     Soza
Carr     Kingsley     Speke
Carter     Kingston     Stables
Casement     Kinnaird     Stanley
Casson     Knight     Stead
Ceelie     Knox     Steel
Chamberlain     Kruger     Steer
Chambers     Kuku     Steere
Chapman     La Perouse     Stephens
Charles II     La Warre     Stevenson
Charles V     Lampson     St. Lys
Chatterjee     Lascasas     Stockenstrum
Chiang Kai-Shek     Law     Strachey
Chief Rewa     Lawrence     Straith
Chisholm     Lawson     Summer
Clarkson     Lechmore     Swan
Clinch     Ledyard     Swinton
Clive     Legge     Symons
Coates     Lennox-Boyd     Tarron
Cobden     Livingstone     Tasman
Cockran     Locquett     Taylor
Colenso     Lovett     Teall
Coleridge-Taylor     Lucas     Tennalilly
Colnett     Lugard     Thomason
Columbus     Luther     Thompson
Confucius     Macdonald     Thornason
Coocoogoing     Machray     Thornton
Cook     Mackenzie     Threlkeld
Cookes     Macleod     Throsby
Coote     Macmillan     Tinnelong
Copley     Macquarie     Tomlinson
Copway     Madhaviah     Tooworero
Cornwallis     Malabari     Townly
Corrie     Malla Bucks     Townsend
Cortez     Maquinna     Tubman
Cowley     Marryat     Tucker
Cowper     Marsden     Tupaia
Crane     Marshman     Turner
Cromer     Martin     Turong
Crowther     Martyn     Twisleton
Cugoano     Mechan     Tymms
Cunambah     Mehemet Ali     Udny
Cundall     Menzies     Van der Stel
Cunliffe-Owen     Merriman-Labor     Van Diemen
Cunningham     Middleton     Vancouver
Curzon     Midwinter     Vanderkemp
Dalai Lama     Mihrbanji     Vasco de Gama
Dalgarno     Mill     Vason
Dampier     Millar     Vega
Daniell     Moffat     Venn
Dara Shikoh     Mohamed Farid Bey     Queen Victoria
Davies     Moll     Vischer
Davin     Mookerjee     Visscher
Davis     Mookerji     Wafer
Dawes     Moore     Wakefield
De Brazza     Morel     Walker
Dean of Ripon     Morice     Wallis
Deer     Mqayi     Walters
Denton     Mukharji     Warburton
Dhlomo     Muller     Ward
Dilke     Munahbingah     Waring
Disraeli     Murad     Warren
Diver     Mutsuhito     Warrington
Doss     Naoroji     Washington
Downing     Nash     Waters
Doyley     Nauarros     Webber
Drake     Nevill     Wedderburn
Dube     Newnham     Weedon
Du Bois     Newport     Weitbrecht
Du Chailu     Newton     Weldon
Duchess of Beaufort     Nicholls     Wellesley
Dud     Nikambe     Wentworth
Dudgeon     Norgate     West
Duke of Albemarle     Normand     Weymouth
Duke of Bucleugh     Nowrojee     Whapai
Duke of Newcastle     Nundy     Wheatley
Dundas     Nylander     Wheeler
Duse Mohamed     Oglethorpe     White
Dutt     Ogumefu     Wiegrabe
Dyson     Ohiatoua     Wigram
Earl of Chichester     O'Keefe     Wild
Earl of Moira     Oldham     Williams
Earl of Sandwich     Olivier     Wilson
Eaton     Omai     Wirgman
Edgar     O'Meara     Woid
Edwards     O'Connell     Wood
Egerton     Ortelius     Wyat
El Baroni Bey     Otoo     Wyat
Ellis     Ottago     Yate