Wednesday, 29 December 2010

A Time to Mourn (Lumpa Church)

A Time To Mourn (A personal account of the the 1964 Lumpa Church revolt by John Hudson). My copy is from Bookworld Publishers, Lusaka, 1999.

The episode in Northern Rhodesian history is well known and there are several accounts in print.

In 1953 the Lumpa Church was founded as an offshoot sect of the local Catholic church in Chinsali district. Its founder, Alice "Lenshina" (Regina) Lubusha , was "a failed catechumen" according to this account.

Something happened to Alice: an illness, a vision, a hallucination perhaps, in which she believed she had died and risen from the dead four times, and had seen God. After a period in which she remained in her original church, during which perhaps all the trouble might have been avoided, she established a breakaway church with a focus on confession of witchcraft. (Of course, failure to confess might mean guilt. This may have contributed to the quick rise in her church membership.) Crucially, also, the church was against participation in politics or membership of political parties, and this would ultimately lead to conflict and bloodshed. The time, of course, was leading up to the independence of Zambia, and UNIP members were militant. In the final stages, roughly two months before independence in October 1964, the army moved in on Lumpa Church settlements.

The Lumpa church members were not only suspicious of outsiders and political party members, but openly hostile. There had been skirmishes and a few deaths and reprisals before the real massacres began. Lumpa church members stopped sending their children to school. In addition, the church had defied local law and set up villages without permission of local chiefs. This disregard and isolation led to suspicion and aggression. Animosity had grown between church members and UNIP supporters.

Kenneth Kaunda certainly tried to avert the crisis, but perhaps at that point things had gone too far. An agreement brokered by KK was drawn up for church settlements to disperse, but this was not honoured or enforced. The church began to develop end-time tendencies, believing that their time on earth was short. They stopped cultivating food and had to resort to raids on neighbouring villages instead.

The Lumpa church members were mostly armed with sharp sticks, spears and pangas, whilst the Northern Rhodesia Regiment (NRR) were armed with automatic rifles. In spite of there having been a couple of causalities on the army side (mainly during their attempts to negotiate) there was no contest in the end. As many as a thousand Lumpas were killed. With independence approaching, the killings did not perhaps receive the kind of attention that they might have done in less tense circumstances. The government was more concerned with preparation for independence. However, the authorities concerned are left looking pretty bad, in my opinion.

Surprisingly, after such a disastrous event and although Alice was sent to prison and died a mysterious death in 1978 under house arrest, the Lumpa (excelling/exceeding) church still survives today.

I came across some quite horrific footage on-line, of an attack on a Lumpa Church, I believe the main church building, judging by its size. Why this footage was shot and how it has survived to see the light of day are a mystery to me. One would imagine it would have been destroyed.... These pictures can't bring home the full horror of it. I have avoided the worst images. The violence perpetrated against people who clearly are not attempting to fight is completely unjustifiable.

A White Father was trying to help the injured.

One can only say that 'a time to mourn' is quite right....

Here are some of the names in the book:

Baker, Lt col. Bill p43, 47, 110-11
Bell p72
Bennet, Peter p60
Bird, J.D.O. (police) p41-42
Chansa, constable (killed) p41, 87
Chibolya, Maini p78, 108-9, 128
Chikwa, chief p.47
Chisolm, Dr James A. p75
Chitimukulu, paramount chief p29
Chiwale, chief p72
Clay, Gervas p74, 78, 135
Drysdale, p72
Ellis, Senior inspector p38
Forbes (1895) p71
Gillies, inspector p46
Gore Brown, p131-34
Hannah, John (D.C. Chinsali) p40, 86
Hannah, J.W. p41-44, 46 failed to get surrender
Hoare, Major Paul p94
Hone, Sir Evelyn p54
Hopwood, detective inspector p38, 43
Hudson, Rowland p134
Jones, "Ropesole" p73
Jordan, inspector (killed) p42, 43
Kakokota, Fr p29
Kameko (Lumpa boy chastised by UNIP uncle) p38
Kamfwimbi, chief p128
Kapele, Alfred p62-3
Kapwepwe, Simon p55
Kaunda, David p.11 @ Lubwa mission
Kaunda, Helen p56
Kaunda, Kenneth p54-6
Kaunda, Robert p56
Kihn, Dr Ron p87-8
Lalonde, Fr (White fathers, Isoka) p88-9
Large, Philip p81
Legum, Colin p56
Lehman, Dorothea (missionary and author) p21
Ling, Colin (DO Lundazi) p47, 95-6
Lester, assistant inspector p38
Lubusha, Alice Mulenga, a.k.a. Lenshina p12 (whole book)
Lungu, Jacob (ex army) p36
Macpherson, Revd Fergus p12-15
McKinnon, Charles p72

McMinn, Revd Robert p19
Miller (Nyala area) p72
Moir and Stewart, African lakes company19th C.
Morris, Revd Colin p35
Moss, Mr P. p43 (district officer)
Mpapa, constable p40, 42
Mubanga, Chief p38
Mulenga, Petros Chitankwa p12, 20, 23, 29, 40 (husband of Alice)
Mumba, Joseph (church member) p29
Mushindo, Paul p15, 19
Musukanya, Valentine & Flavia p77 
Musukwa, Timothy p77-8, 81, 82, 85, 99-103, 111, 119-129
Muyombe p82-5
Ngandu, Lupele p62
Nichelya, Musuku p62-3
Nkula, Chief p29,30
Northey, General E. (WWI) p112, 116
Paishuko, p48-51
Reid, Brigadier T.N.S. p117
Robins, John p77, 106-8, 123
Shimulopwe, assistant inspector p38
Sinkamba, Gideon p78, 109-10, 128
Smith, Derek (killed) p40, 87, 102
Smith, lieutenant p89
Stacey, Charles (solicitor) p60
Standaloft, assistant inspector p42
Stevenson, James p71 19th c.
Sumaili, Lameck p60
Thompson, Hugh p60
Trant, Dr Hope p78, 87-9
Von Lettow Vorbeck, Paul (WWI) p112, 116

Young, "Bobo" p72

Friday, 17 December 2010

Empire Online

This list from Empire Online
contains "the names of some of the key people in the database."

Many of these names will have connections to southern and central Africa

Abbe Gunga     Elphinstone     Outram
Abdool Messeeh's     Emerson     Ouvry
Abdul Baha     Eustace     Oxley
Abdul Masih     Everett-Green     Palmerston
Abdul Rahim     Eyre     Pandit Nehru
Abel     Falconbridge     Panta
Acland     Farquhar     Park
Aggrey     Fawcett     Parkes
Agirre     Fay     Parkinson
Prince Albert     Fenn     Parry
Albert     Ferdinand     Pascoe
Aldridge     Field     Passfield
Alkaid of Jillipee     Firminger     Paterson
Allabasca     Fisher     Paxton
Alley     Fleming     Pearce
Allinson     Fletcher     Peck
Ameer Ali     Forbes     Peel
Anderson     Forquhar     Perry
Andrew     Forster     Philip
Angas     Fremantle     Phillipson
Ansell     Frere     Picarro
Anson     Froude     Pigott
Apianus     Fry     Pigwys
Archbishop of Canterbury     Furneux     Pillai
Arlington     Galton     Pitt
Aurangzeb (Oram Rebb)     Gambier     Pizzaro
Azariah     Gandhi     Plaatje
Bacon     Garcia     Pochahuntus
Baden-Powell     Gardiner     Pomare
Baijnath     Gardner     Pomarre
Baikie     Garrett     Popham
Ballantyne     Gates     Portman
Banerjee     Gaunt     Porter
Banks     Gelsthorpe     Postans
Bannister     Gibson     Poulaho
Barbour     Gilbert     Powhaton
Baring     Gladstone     Praed
Baring-Gould     Glenelg     Pratt
Barker     Goldie     Prince Albert
Barnes     Goohoogong     Prizgar
Barnley     Gordon     Ptolemy
Baskerville     Ormsby-Gore     Radisson
Bateman     Gottlieb     Ral
Battersby     Goulburn     Raleigh
Beecham     Grand Vizier of Turkey     Read
Behn     Gray     Reed
Bell     Grant     Rewa
Bennett     Great Mughal     Rex
Berry     Greenway     Rhenius
Berthelot     Grenville     Rhodes
Besant     Grey     Ringeltaube
Bian     Gribbell     Ringrose
Bird     Griffiths     Ritchie
Bhore     Groue     Roberson
Bisset     Nares Chandra Sen-Gupta     Roberts
Blaeu     Gutiero     Robertson
Bleck     Gwynne     Robinson
Bligh     Hack     Rogers
Blumhardt     Hadfield     Rolls
Bokwe     Haggard     Roman
Bonnerjee     Haidar Ali     Rosende
Booth     Haldane     Rowlandson
Bokwe     Hall     Roy
Borlase     Harrington     Russell
Bougainville     Harriott     Salazor
Bourne     Harris     Salim
Bowen     Harrison     Salter
Bowley     Hastings     Sances
Boxwell     Havelock     Sarasvati
Boyle     Hawkins     Satthianadhan
Brangwyn     Henry the Navigator     Sawkins
Brightly     Henty     Sawyer
Brind     Herbert     Schnarre
Brisbane     Hill     Scholes
Broughton     Hixon     Schreiner
Brown     Hoare     Cammerer
Bruce     Hobson     Seeley
Bryce     Hodges     Seetaram
Bryden     Hole     Selkirk
Buchan     Hollander     Selous
Buchanan     Holles     Shah Jehan
Buck     Homney     Shah Sonia
Buckley     Hondius     Shaikh
Bull     Hooper     Shapland
Bundles     Horstead.     Sharp
Bungham     Hughes-Hallett     Sharpeigh
Burchett     Hunt     Shaw Bash
Burman     Hyder Ally     Shaw
Burton     Impey     Sheikh Raji Oo Din
Bushnell     Ingram     Sheldon
Butler     Innes     Shepherd
Buxton     Ironside     Sheridan
Byron     Isabella     Shewkat Pasha
de Bry     Jameson     Shiya
Cabot     Jephson     Skene
Caddick     Johnston     Skertchly
Calcott     Joe Little Chief     Sly
Caldwell     Jolobe     Smart
Camelford     Jones     Smith
Campbell     Jourdain     Smithhurst
Cantino     Juon de Ampudia     Snelgrove
Cardoso     Kaempfer     Solander
Carey     Kearns     Sommers
Carlyle     Kell     Sorabji
Carnarvon     Kendall     Sowden
Carpenter     Kenyatta     Soza
Carr     Kingsley     Speke
Carter     Kingston     Stables
Casement     Kinnaird     Stanley
Casson     Knight     Stead
Ceelie     Knox     Steel
Chamberlain     Kruger     Steer
Chambers     Kuku     Steere
Chapman     La Perouse     Stephens
Charles II     La Warre     Stevenson
Charles V     Lampson     St. Lys
Chatterjee     Lascasas     Stockenstrum
Chiang Kai-Shek     Law     Strachey
Chief Rewa     Lawrence     Straith
Chisholm     Lawson     Summer
Clarkson     Lechmore     Swan
Clinch     Ledyard     Swinton
Clive     Legge     Symons
Coates     Lennox-Boyd     Tarron
Cobden     Livingstone     Tasman
Cockran     Locquett     Taylor
Colenso     Lovett     Teall
Coleridge-Taylor     Lucas     Tennalilly
Colnett     Lugard     Thomason
Columbus     Luther     Thompson
Confucius     Macdonald     Thornason
Coocoogoing     Machray     Thornton
Cook     Mackenzie     Threlkeld
Cookes     Macleod     Throsby
Coote     Macmillan     Tinnelong
Copley     Macquarie     Tomlinson
Copway     Madhaviah     Tooworero
Cornwallis     Malabari     Townly
Corrie     Malla Bucks     Townsend
Cortez     Maquinna     Tubman
Cowley     Marryat     Tucker
Cowper     Marsden     Tupaia
Crane     Marshman     Turner
Cromer     Martin     Turong
Crowther     Martyn     Twisleton
Cugoano     Mechan     Tymms
Cunambah     Mehemet Ali     Udny
Cundall     Menzies     Van der Stel
Cunliffe-Owen     Merriman-Labor     Van Diemen
Cunningham     Middleton     Vancouver
Curzon     Midwinter     Vanderkemp
Dalai Lama     Mihrbanji     Vasco de Gama
Dalgarno     Mill     Vason
Dampier     Millar     Vega
Daniell     Moffat     Venn
Dara Shikoh     Mohamed Farid Bey     Queen Victoria
Davies     Moll     Vischer
Davin     Mookerjee     Visscher
Davis     Mookerji     Wafer
Dawes     Moore     Wakefield
De Brazza     Morel     Walker
Dean of Ripon     Morice     Wallis
Deer     Mqayi     Walters
Denton     Mukharji     Warburton
Dhlomo     Muller     Ward
Dilke     Munahbingah     Waring
Disraeli     Murad     Warren
Diver     Mutsuhito     Warrington
Doss     Naoroji     Washington
Downing     Nash     Waters
Doyley     Nauarros     Webber
Drake     Nevill     Wedderburn
Dube     Newnham     Weedon
Du Bois     Newport     Weitbrecht
Du Chailu     Newton     Weldon
Duchess of Beaufort     Nicholls     Wellesley
Dud     Nikambe     Wentworth
Dudgeon     Norgate     West
Duke of Albemarle     Normand     Weymouth
Duke of Bucleugh     Nowrojee     Whapai
Duke of Newcastle     Nundy     Wheatley
Dundas     Nylander     Wheeler
Duse Mohamed     Oglethorpe     White
Dutt     Ogumefu     Wiegrabe
Dyson     Ohiatoua     Wigram
Earl of Chichester     O'Keefe     Wild
Earl of Moira     Oldham     Williams
Earl of Sandwich     Olivier     Wilson
Eaton     Omai     Wirgman
Edgar     O'Meara     Woid
Edwards     O'Connell     Wood
Egerton     Ortelius     Wyat
El Baroni Bey     Otoo     Wyat
Ellis     Ottago     Yate

Thursday, 11 November 2010

South African Empire podcast

The UK National Archives have some podcasts worth a listen. There's plenty here on how to search for ancestors with particular backgrounds, including ones who wound up in prison, the workhouse, or the circus. 

There's also help on searching for people in certain locales, for example in Scotland, and discussion on emigration to Canada and Ireland, transportation to Australia and on immigration to the UK. There's even a podcast about UFOs! Plenty to choose from...

For people interested in South Africa, there is one on the "South African Empire"

Monday, 1 November 2010

Ndotolu - Walter and Anna Fisher of Central Africa

Ndotolu - The life and stories of Walter and Anna Fisher of Central Africa, Fisher & Hoyte. (my copy 1992, 2nd impression, published by Miss Joan Hoyte, Zambia, from whom copies might be available)

This is an update of the 1948 book 'Africa Looks Ahead', telling the tale of another remarkable missionary family. There is an appendix on the Fisher children. The Fisher, Arnot, Hoyte and Darling families are all connected. (There is a lot more information on the family tree and other names mentioned here in the sequel to this book, Nswana.)

Most of the people in the book are either related to the Fishers or associated with their mission. The Fishers were inspired particularly by Scotsman Fred Arnot, who also appears prominently. I was interested to see that Arnot is referred to as Munari (red neck), a name I always thought only associated with David Livingstone (who, of course, inspired Arnot).

The Fisher's final mission station was at Kalene Hill in present-day north-western Zambia, where Walter Fisher set up a hospital. Husband and wife administer to all comers, with Walter gaining respect through a quiet authority and medical wonders such as cataract operations. Many missionary children were born at Kalene Hill, it being the only medical facility in a very wide area. Patients travelled as much as 150 miles to reach it. The border commission also used them as a sort of post restante for any mail to people in the area, who would naturally also stay at Kalene Hill if in the vicinity.

The Fishers' first trip to Africa was in 1888 and some of the people mentioned are in earlier stations, from Angola going east around the Caprivi strip into northern Zambia.

Like other missionaries, the Fishers returned to Greenwich and elsewhere in England on furlough every couple of years (shorter than the usual 5 years, although husband and wife take it in turns). Some of the children go to boarding school in England and some names in the book relate to these trips back to the homeland.

Once again one must admire the zeal that led people like these (Walter Fisher had a bright career ahead as a surgeon) to come to Africa and spend their lives there. This may be attributed in this case at least in part to their Plymouth Brethren background, which seems to have given Walter and others in his family a discipline and dedication of a rare kind.

There is the usual litany of deaths by malaria with several of their outgoing party dead within a week or two of departure.

Some names:

Aldwinckle, Miss (Westcliff school) p121
Allen, Roland (author of 'Missionary Methods') p171
Anton, Mr (Lufira) p119
Arnot, Fred x Trottie Fisher (Walter's sister) p17-20, 25-28,32-34, 40-44, 48-58, 66-8, p118-9, 123, 140-1, 192 d. 1914
Arnot, Nigel p125
Arnot, Rachel p141
Arnot, Ray p73
Arthington trust p155

Bellis, Mr (government) p191
Bird, Cyril & Mrs p65, 70, 78, 80
Bird, Handley (1891 of India) p65, 84, 86-88 d Feb 1896 blackwater fever
Boake, Mr (Loughton, Essex) p195
Brayshaw, Miss Lizzie p90, 93, 107-8
Brealey, Walter p13
Brinton, Tomase (photo) p161

Cameron, trader at Benguella p29, 38
Carlile, Miss (aunt of Fisher children) p93,96,107-8
Chamora p193
Chamuwana, p156
Chapman, Robert p18
Chimwanga (headman) p158
Chindinduma (king) p54-5, 78
Chinenga p168-70
Chinyama (chief) p75
Chiputa p114
Clarke, Mr (Lufira) p118-9
Coillard, Mons. p113
Coppithorne, Mr p90,93-98 d Malaria
Cornfield, Miss x Schindler
Couceiro, Captain p55
Crawford, Dan (Luanza) p20, 42-3, 48, 119 
Cunningham, Mr & Mrs (Lunda Bible) p90, 92, 108-12, 124, 141, 156

Darling, Eileen
Darling, John Singleton p60-3, 89, 127 N. Ireland 1865
Darling, Letitia (Linnie) p60-2
Darling, Marian b<1865 p61
Darling, Miss x Lear, Gilbert (Argentine) 1911 p153 d 1913
Darling, Susanna (Anna) Elizabeth p60-7, 71-3 b. Ireland 1865 
Davies, Miss p20, 31, 34, 39
Dering, Mr p16
Dyer, Henry p18

Easton, Mr & Mrs (China mission) p15
Edwards, Mr p113, 143
Faulkner, Mr p54, 69
Figg, Mr p113-5
Fisher, Alfred Charles p127
Fisher, ffolliott p172-5
Fisher, George (Barnstaple, no relation) p20, 31, 34, 39
Fisher, Hettie p106, 112
Fisher, Katolo p89,156 b 1896
Fisher, Kitty p201 became a Lunda chief in 1971
Fisher, May p77, 80, 89, 98, 107,153-6, 172  b 1893
Fisher, Pearl p99, 107 d 1902
Fisher, Mr and Mrs (Greenwich) p64
Fisher, William Singleton p80-2, 89, 95-7, 107, 156-7
Franklin, Mr (Clarence School) p122

Gall, Mr p20, 35; 1889 aged 26, d. 1889
Geddes, Mr p125
Gilchrist, Miss p20, 31
Gilchrist, Mr p70, 75-6
Gillard, Miss p16
Green, Dr p14
Green, Mr and Mrs Alfred (Redland) p174
Groves, Henry p18

Harwood, Mr & Mrs p90
Honjo 'half-caste' p30
Hornby, Arthur p113
Hoyte, Miss Winifred x Last (Bunkeya) p143-4, 154-6, 162-3, 172
Hoyte, Dr Julyan p172
Ikelenge (elephant hunter) p132
Ing, Miss (Minehead, Kavungu) p143, 193
Johnston, Mary Anne p60 d. c. 1867
Johnston, Mr  p20, 25 1889 aged 32, d. yellow fever 1889
Judson, Mr and Mrs (From Bihe, school at Sokezi) p195

Kaindo p54
Kaji, Ilunga  p142
Kaji, Musokantanda p142
Kamana p184
Kamona, a.k.a. Nyawili p81-4, 102
Kamwandi, p166
Kapusu (Ovimbundu) p84 x Kamona
Katayi, p 179
Katoyo (brother of Swanakibinda) p132
Kayuma (nurse) p193
Kinniburgh, Linnie p200
Knowles, Mr (Stockton on Tees) p122
Kutela p156
Kwanjulula, Chief p51

Lammond, Mr W. p136
Lane, F p20, 25, 27
Lane, Miss Harriet (nee Lacey) c 1885 Ryde
Lane, Mr p78
Last, Percy x Hoyte p143-4
Lear, Gilbert (Argentine) x Darling p153
Lewanika, King p114, 127, 131, 141
Lewis, Mr & Mrs p96, 107, 113
Lindley, Miss p113 x Hornby
Luming, Mr (Dutch, Benguella) p39
Lynn, Joseph p65, 70-77 d 1893 rabies

Maclean, Dr & Mrs (Bath, UK) p18, 64
Macgregor, Sister "Border Craig" Kalene p129
Maitland, Mr p124
Manase p156
Manson, Sir Patrick p125 (quinine)
Marks, Miss Kitty (later Fisher) p170, 172, 188
Maseka, Musokantanda p142
McKinnon, Mr p113
Morey, Dr (American) p123
Morris, Mr & Mrs p20, 31, 34-36, 39 Mr d. 1889 malaria
Mowat, Mr & Mrs p136
Muhoni, p164-5
Mukangala, Ibala (Chief) p132
Mukwetanza (Queen's husband) p84-6
Munnock, Archie p20, 25, 27, 35, 38, 40, 44
Murrain, Mr and Mrs (Demarara) p75
Mushidi, King p78, 119
Mwatiyamvwa (Lunda king) p142, 166
Mwenda, son of Mushidi p119

Nightingale, Mr Roland p199 x Hettie Fisher
Nyakatolo (chiefess) p78
Nyalukuka, p122
Nyamavunda p154
Nyamuweji p179
Nyangunja (boarders house mother) p193
Nyawili, p185
Ondulu, chief p51
O'Jon, Mrs p93

Paiva (Portuguese Captain) p57-8
Petita (orphan) p193
Piper, Dr and Mrs p166
Pokanwa (congolese) p84
Porto, Senhor p54-6 suicide 1890 (Angola)
Rea, Mr T. p156

Sakawumba, Chief p100-5
Sandongu p81
Sanje (church leader) p68
Sanders, Mr p71
Saunders, Mr & Mrs p25-6, 39 American missionaries, Benguela
Sawyer, Mr & Mrs p141-5, 148, 162-3, 172
Schindler, Mr p65, 70, 79, 83, 87, 91-2, 106, 118 (Benguella and Kalene) x Cornfield
Scott, Miss (Westcliff school) p121
Searle, Mr and Mrs p25-6
Shole, Minnie (governess) p13
Skinner, Miss (Gloucester boarding school c1880) p62
Smith, Miss O.G. x Sawyer p143-4
Smith, Stanley, p15, 80

Spurgeon, Charles p18
Stone, Huntington p18, 82, 122 (Greenwich)
Studd, C.T. mention only p15 Cambridge
Suckling, Mr G.R. p153, 155 (1911)
Swan, Mr and Mrs p54, 78
Swanakibinda p132
Taylor, Cuthbert p108-12
Taylor, Hudson p15 mention only
Taylor, Mr p124

Thompson, H.B. p32
Wangula  (church leader) p68
Webster, Dr p25
Wili (orderly, photo) p161
Williams, Robert (labour recruiting) p192
"Yekesi" (British man, nice tale of glass eye, 1910) p151-2

Friday, 15 October 2010

Robert Codrington School (Mazabuka) magazine

A quickie post as I spotted a magazine of the school in the internet archive, which is well-worth searching for other things also...

Saturday, 11 September 2010

Showtime - The Zambia Agricultural Society

I finally purchased a copy of Showtime: A history of the Agricultural and Commercial Society of Zambia, 1914-1976 by Dick Hobson (1979), which I had been eyeing for some time jealously. A year or two ago a second and updated edition came out, but by the time I realised I wanted it, it was sold out in Lusaka bookshops. The first edition is a handsome hardback though, whereas the second is a hefty paperback.

The book commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Agricultural and Commercial Show, in 1976. (Acknowledgement is made of research carried out by Margaret Dodgson.) There is also some general history of settlement in Rhodesia.

The agricultural show has been held in Lusaka for most of its life, in the grounds opposite the present Manda Hill shopping mall. I used to spend a lot of time on the show grounds, as my father started working there in 1967 as one of the founders of of the Lusaka Nutrition Group. Attending the agricultural show was one of the highlights of the year.

Recently I unearthed some film footage from a Focus on Zambia documentary made in the early 70s, including some of a daredevil motorcycle stunt in the main arena. Nostalgic viewing...

Back to the book:

By March 1905 there were 252 Europeans in NE Rhodesia - 69 civil servants, 39 missionaries, 52 traders, 68 farmers, 24 miners and prospectors.

Mining was not working out well, but cattle could be sold at a profit to the south in Salisbury or Bulawayo. Parts of trips would often take place at night to avoid tsetse fly. However, the farmers lacked real knowledge and badly needed to get some experts in. There were inevitably many failed experiments, including in rubber and silk production.

Of the Old Drift we have:

The only pastimes were drinking and gambling and Mopani supplied both. his bar kept open all night if customers wanted it and an American ran a roulette wheel as long as the liquor flowed. In the mornings African servants would sieve the sand covering the floor, hoping to find tickeys and sixpences dropped by the customers.

Having spent most of my youth in Makeni, I had high hopes of this book shedding light on the origins of the name, but it doesn't really. Perhaps it was known by this name when Europeans arrived. We are told that Boyd Cunninghame bought a farm known as Makeni (40,000 acres!) around about 1910 with John Rudd (p37) and when the administrator from Livingstone toured Lusaka in 1914 his group pitched their camp there.

To the names: not all references are listed in the index, so I've added my own. A summary of the actual index follows this list.

For a few people there are nice potted biographies, but mostly these are brief mentions. There are a few photos of some people mentioned here and a great one of Father Carierre's melodica-playing group, The Rising Stars! Remember them?

The 1976 committee and past staff (list at front)

Anderson, AW (Chairman)
Bowen, PD,
Dean, RL (ODS, OBE, Life Hon vice-president)
Dodgson, Mrs M
Edwardes, PD
Golson, CH
Hall, PR (ODS, life hon. vice-president)
Kabunda, EB
Kayamba, JG
Kelley, AJ,
Lenton, AJ
Loggie, AB (immediate past chairman)
Marston, LJ (past chairman)
Miller, PTS (OBE, life hon. vice-president)
Mwansa, SK
Siwale, KC
Veale, RO (Vice-chairman)
Wallace, DG

Some references that were not in the index

Allan, William (entomologist, 1930) p81
Ayrshire area, p37
Arnold, Simonga farm, photo p22

Baragwanath, Orlando p40
Babcock, Miss p76
Barlow ( Dobson & ) p74
Baxter, Sally p57
Beesley, Mr (Livingstone) p74
Benson, Sir Arthur p32
Babcock, Muriel (photo) p28
Babcock, Roxo (photo) p28
Blue Lagoon area p38
Blyth (farm photo Abercorn/Mbala 1905) p20
Blyth, Charles p41
Bredo p84
Brown, Cpt John (biography) p115
Buchanan, Sir James p39
Buchanan, George (& Susmans) p138
Burrel, Elsie (Mrs Cunninghame) p38

Carden, Cpt John (BSA police) p9
Carlton, Noel p47
Chester, Dean p54
Clarke, Mopani (cattle photo) p28, short biography p32
Cleaver, Hugh p42
Cliff (bandmaster, NRP) p76-77
Clothier, Neil
Collier, Dr R. Stanley p95
Cope (Kafue) p67
Coryndon, Robert p95
Cripps, Lionel (Umtali, 1895) p129

Davey, Tom p10
Deacon, T.C. (headmaster Lusaka School 1933) p87
Delaporte, J.W. (Lusaka) p74
Diamond, Vic (Lusaka) p74
Dobson & Barlow p74
Dos Santos (16th C) p45
Du Boisson ("Dubs") p74
Dunbar, Harry p56

Ellis (brothers from Plymouth) p67
Evans, Bubbles p57
Evans, Mrs Margaret  p81

Fairbairn (NR cricket team), photo, p17
Ferguson (red-hair, from SA, Kafue) p66
Fisher, Dr & Mrs (missionaries) p40
Fleming, Dr Andrew (S.Rhodesia) p95
Fleming, William Gibson & Selina, p39
Fletcher ( & Johnson; Bulawayo) p74

Garlick Mrs (Peggy) Grasmere farm, photo p24, p75
Gaskell p74
Gasson, Mrs (1917, Makeni) p38
Girling, Alan p61
Glyn, Frederic (Baron)
Goleti (servant of de Jong) p14
Gordon, Louis p109
Gordon, Major - short biography - p65
Graham, Mrs p57
Gray, Dolly, photo, p28
Gray, Kitty, photo, p28
Gray, Wyn, wedding photo, p28
Green-Wilkinson, Oliver p39
Grey's farm p42
Grill, Annie p138

Haddon & Sly (Bulawayo) p74
Halcrow, Magnus (1955) p30, 31
Hazard, C.J. administrator from Livingstone p9
Hay, "Tottie" (Bulawayo) p34
Hayman, JM (Indian empire to Rhodesia) p11
Helmore, Revd Holoway (1860) p90
Hermon p74
Hewitt, Alan p39
Higginson ( Rossiter & ) p66
Highfield (Mzaza, 1900) p45
Hobson, P.K. p77
Horner, PK (miner) p35
Howell, (Kafue, 1909) p40

Ingles p71
Jacobs, John (Lobengula's secretary) p138
Jelf, Philip p43
"Jericho" farm p41
Jerominsky (short biography) p135
Johnson & Fletcher (Bulawayo) p74
Jordan, E. Knowles (Namwala, 1906) p93

Kabot's (Bulawayo) p74
King, Ben (Kafue) p74
Kirby (Kafue camp photo) p27
Kirby, Maidie p57

Learmonth, C.L. p36
Le Roux, Piet p86
Lee, Willam (miner) p35
Lewin, C.J. (agriculture secretary 1933) p31
Leyer, Andrew p34
Lindsay, Lizzie (later Woest) p40
Little, Cliff (Bulawayo) p86

Mackintosh, Miss (niece of Coillard) p32
Marais, Mrs p56, p75
Marshall, Hugh p42
McChellen, Mrs p61
McClintock, John ("Honest John", Australian) p133
McKee, David p64
McKee, Peter p64
Meikle brothers (Rhodesia) p9
Michelmore, A.P.C. p84
Middleton, D.G. p129
Miller, PT (Bulawayo, photo) p17, p26
Mills, E.C. (ANZAC) p119
Minberg, Billie (Grasmere farm, photo) p24
Moore, TC (1923) p16
Moore, Leopold p39, 95-6, 109 (previous three chemists died of malaria)
Morris, JAF ("Seamus") p16
Muckleneuk farm, Kalomo (first farm NW Rhodesia, 1903 - Walker) p9
Murray, Cpt Thomas H. p96

Nel, Mrs (Mazabuka) p76
Norton-Griffiths, John p37
Norris, Gerald Chad p85
Oliphant, Effie p74
Orpen, Dr (Salisbury, 1911) p91

Palmer, R.H. (Kalomo, 1906) p93
Papenfus p66
Penny, J.W. (Bechuanaland Border Police <  Australia) p71 (biog)
Pienaar, P. Joubert p66
Price, G. Ward p75
Price, Revd Roger (1860) p90

Rintoul, Isabel p74
Rossiter & Higginson p66
Rudd, Bracken p37
Rudd, John p37, 119

Savory, Guy p76
Shoebottom (Cooper and Nephews co.) p13, p68
Sly ( & Haddon; Bulawayo) p74
Smith "Bongola" (Congo) p138
Smith, Cpt John p29, 30
Smith, Frederick p109
Sonnenberg, Mrs p138
Spring farm (Walker's son Hughie c 1906)
Stent, H.B. (agricultural chemist) p29
Stephenson, Chiripula photo p23
Susman brothers (biography) p137-8

Tambalika p42
Tarry's store p74
Teagle, C.A. p136
Thompson, Moffat p110
Thompson, Oakley p45
Trapnell, p29
Trayner, W. p92
Trayner, William p96
Turnour, Edward (Earl) p39

Vlantis (sisters Calliope, Hester, Cleopatra) p74

Walker (Mazabuka) p77
Walker, Chris (killed by elephant?) p9
Walker's drift p9
Walker, Hugh p9
Walker, Mackie (blacksmith, Choma) p9
Walker, daughter, married ILSLEY, Horace p9
Walton, (Livingstone) p16, p29
Watkins, George (hotel, 1905) p42
Westbeech, George p33
Wilkes, Mrs (photo) p25
Williams, Robert p36
Willis, AA (Kafue secretary) p12
Wood, p12
Woods (vet) p43
Woods, R.E. Broughhall p82
Wulfsohn, Harry p138

Young, Macdonald p129
Zeederberg stage coach (photo) p16

Some names that are in the index!

Adshead. Prof
Anderson, A.W.
Angier, Eric
Appleton, David
Baker, Sir R.
Barker, Meredith
Barnett, Frank
Beckett, Geoffrey
Bentley, A.M.
Beringer, Otto
Birchenough, Sir. H.
Bledisloe, Lord
Blue lagoon ranch
Blyth, Charles
Broomfield, Spencer
Brown, Jack
Burkitt, W.
Carlin, T.C.
Chaplin, Sir D
Clark, Harrison
Clarke, Erica
Clarke, Mopani
Clothier, Niel
Counsell, "Pop"
Critchley, Mrs
Cross, Herbert, Marjorie, Woodrow
Cunninghame, Boyd
Davison, Arthur
Deacon, John
Dean, R.B.
Dean, R.W.
De Jong, J.C.
Dimoline, Major-General W.A.
Doughty, Horacer
Dunn, E.C. (Northern Rhodesia Journal 1964 Vol V p592-4)
Ellison, Gabriel
Evans, Billy
Filmer, Cpt John
Fischer, Jack
Fitzgerald, Lady
Ford, W.P.
Fox, H. Wilson
Fox-Pitt, T.S.L.
Frost, H.D.
Galaun, Abe
Gamwell, Marion & Hope
Gaunt, John
Gibbons, A.H.
Glieman, Orne
Godsell, Sandy
Godson, Cpt Freddy
Goodhart, Herbert L.
Gore-Brown, Sir Stewart
Grenfell, H.
Grey, George
Hailey, Lord
Hall, Percy
Harris, Day
Harvey, Walter
Haslett, Sam
Hasseriis, B.F.C.
Hatchwell, H.J.R.
Hazard, C.J.
Hermon, Major Victor
Hewitt, Alan
Holmes, R.D.
Holmes, R.L.
Hone, Sir Evelyn
Hornby, Guy
Hubbard, Wynant Davis
Huggins, G.M.
Ilsley, Horace
James, C.Gordon
Johnston, H.H.
Jordan, E. Knowles
Kapwepwe, Simon
Kaunda, Dr K.D.K.
Kerby, Dr T.R.
King, Tom p 11-13 and 40
Kirby, E.D.
Krogh, Walter
Lafone, Michael
Landless, Eric
Lane-Poole, E.H.
Learmonth, Cecil L.
Light, Percy
Livingstone, Dr
Llewellin, Lord
Lllewellyn, Sir Harry
Lobb, Gordon
Loggie, A.B. (sr, jr)
Lyell, Dennis
Mclintock, John
McFadyean, John
Mackenzie-Kennedy, Sir John
McKinnon, Charles
Malcolm, Sir
Marshall, Hugh
Maxwell, Sir James
Maybin, Sir John
Miller, Peter (sr, jr)
Moore, T.C.
Moreton, John & Co Cairo Road, photo
Morton, Percy
Murray, Cpt T.H.
Murray, Charles
Murray-Hughes, R.
Page, Sir Thomas
Pauling, George
Penny, J.W.
Pim. Sir Alan
Potgeiter, J.J.
Puffet, Stan
Rangelely, Henry
Rangeley, Stewart
Rhodes, Cecil J.
Rickett, Charles
Roberts, John
Robertson, Cpt F.B.
Robins, Col
Rodger, Dr Lovell
Rundle, Marjorie
Selby, P.H.
Smith, Ronald and Lionel
Stephenson, Col
Storrs, Sir
Tapson, Guy & Winnifred
Walker, H.F.
Wallace, Sir
Ward, Dr Percy H.
Welensky, Sir Roy
Wienand, Chris
Winterton, Earl
Woest, Ben
Wolverton, Baron
Wood, Rodney
Woolavington, Baron
Young, Major

Monday, 6 September 2010

Prayers and poems

I've been struck by some verses and a prayer in recent days...
And the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.
T.S.Eliot, Four Quartets, 1943
And on a more positive note than Larkin's This Be The Verse, I thought this prayer was interesting. Whilst expressing a similar idea to 'forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those' (which through repetition we may soon pay little attention to), it also looks back to our upbringing and family:
Lord, forgive us our shortcomings,
as well as those who came before us
And let not our hearts entertain any ill thoughts or feelings against anyone 
Shaykh Michael Mumisa, BBC Radio Prayer for the day, 2010

Saturday, 17 July 2010

Nel graves - Mwembeshi, Zambia

When Makeni Ecumenical Centre acquired a farm in Mwembeshi for their agricultural settlement project back in the late 70s or early 80s (I guess) the plot had an old farm house on it and some graves of the original occupants, named Nel. I am not sure if these graves are visible any more, not having been there myself in 20 years or more. However, I have found this photo, which shows two of the grave stones.

The one in the foreground seems to be Danielena J. Nel Feb 1925 - 9 March? 1929?

The other appears to have been scratched, sadly... It looks like it begins "Dina". I think I have another photo elsewhere, though probably no better.

Sunday, 4 July 2010

A folkways diversion

Although you are unlikely to find genealogical information at Smithsonian Folkways, I have often thought that audio recordings are one of the most direct ways of experiencing the past and getting under the skin of people long gone. Moses Asch had great vision. Try the podcasts here: Sounds to Grow On is a good place to start and this episode on Work Songs a great example of what I mean, as is the one on children's songs.

I've been spending hours listening to the likes of Woody Guthrie and Paul Robeson - both truly remarkable individuals. Don't miss Woody Guthrie's Talking Hard Work song.

Also, under the Folkways collection don't miss episodes 13-15 'winds of change', including the labour, civil rights and women's movements.

If that isn't enough, try a search on your area of interest, for example on Rhodesia we have this list. You can preview recordings by following links to individual albums.


Sunday, 20 June 2010

Georges Mercier - Old Drift

I've been doing a lot of scanning of old photos and negatives for the past few years, trying to save them from the white ants... In the latest batch I came across this photo, probably from the 1980s, of Georges Mercier's grave at the Old Drift, Livingstone. I am pretty sure that this grave marker was not there on my more recent visit, so I am glad to have uncovered it.

It adds some information to the plaque I posted earlier. The text seems to be:

Born 1874, Georges Mercier, Died of black water fever, 18th Nov. 1900, Aged 26. (He was a Paris Missionary.)

Sunday, 6 June 2010

Sunshine and Shade in Central Africa

This slim volume is by Julia A. Smith and published in 1908. Julia was the wife of Edwin W. Smith, Ila Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia (You can browse a copy at this link.)
who was famous for his work on the Ila language, and wrote

The book concerns their journey to and time at the Baila-Batonga mission at Nanzela, which lies on a tributary of the Kafue River in present day Zambia.
Mrs Smith in her hammock

In the usual fashion, they come up by ox wagon from the south, from Aliwal North and via Bulawayo, across the Zambezi, an 8 week journey, in the latter stages of which Mrs Smith is carried by machila.

They have been preceded at Nanzela by the Chapman and Pickering families (Mrs Pickering and daughter Madge are buried there), but are the first to teach in Ila.  Their predecessors seem to have mainly used Sesuto speaking teachers from South Africa and the Smiths also begin in this way. But the people in Nanzela are Ila speaking, and it is not surprising that the mission makes so little progress until Mr Smith starts putting together a grammar of Ila and translating the Bible and hymns.

The Smiths lose their young son but then have a daughter, who they name Matsediso, 'consolation'.

There are some interesting descriptions of the Ila people and their customs and a few photos, including of Mrs Smith's sewing class.

The name generally given to God is Leza ... also the name for rain... When it rains people say 'Ku la wa Leza' - God falls: when it thunders they say, 'Leza wa ndindima', or 'Leza wa chinka' - God is hoeing deeply: when it lightens, 'Leza wa kalala' - God is fierce... When a wave of great heat comes they say, 'Leza wa bala' - God surpasses; and of the wind 'Leza wa unga' - God blows.

An old man who had some stomach trouble came to us. He said 'Now, moruti [doctor], there is a little dog in my stomach. First he begins to rise up, then he shakes himself, by-and-by he goes round and round after his tail, and then he begins to scratch and claw, and at last he bites me very badly, and the pain is very great'.

Shamatanga (Pauluse) says God is like our shadows, always near us, never leaving us.

Nanzela scholars

Nanzela Mission Station

A Mwila

Unfortunately there are few full names given for people along the way. The Ila people are also interesting in that they have infancy names and then later names. It is taboo to speak your own name or use it in speaking to someone who has the same name as you (who is instead referred to as 'namesake'). It is taboo to speak your father's, mother's or sister-in-law's names (even in speaking to someone else of that name), or your wife's maiden name, and the wife must be given a new name when one marries. Most early converts seem to have taken on Biblical names on being received into the church.

Bimbea (1yr old) son of Joseph p20,25-27 d.measles
Bulongo, aka Maria, wife of Samoliko p24, 26, 104-5

Chapman, Mr p90, 103
Chikanda, aka Solomoni (Solomon) kitchen worker, p78, 104-5

Gray, Mr (owned the wagons used on trip) p9,11,12,13

'Johnny' (Dutch lad, fond of singing) p8, p11
Joseph, native teacher, wife d. malaria p13,19,20,22,25,26

Kalobe and daughter Nalhilobe p83

Leselo, chief p82-3
Letsatsi, domestic, p14
Lydia, teacher's wife, p82, 84

Mabeta, brother of Maria, married Tambo p23, 106
Mahiritona, Kemuel (teacher) p36
Manga, (abt 40) aka Matsediso p.24,26, 104-5 (photo)
Maolosi, Robert and wife Annie p19
Matsediso (photo)
Mokuena, p28
Mooba, local man, p21
Mukamatame, p82
Mushonto, brother of Samuele p106
Musuto, p38,61
Mwila (photo and book cover)

Namiyobo (sister of Sezungo) p100-1

Pickering, Mr and Mrs, daughter Madge p.22, 24, 27, 103

Ramathe, teacher from Aliwal North, wife Janet, p8
Rosie (3yrs old) daughter of Joseph p20

Samolike, aka Samuele (Samuel) p104-5
Seli, freed slave girl, p22, 23, 25
Sephoma (Nanzela, Sesuto speaking) p15
Sezungo, chief p61, 98-102, suspicious death (poisoned?)
Shaloba, chief p58,59
Shamatanga, aka Pauluse (Paul) p37, 104-6

Tambo, Mabeta's wife, freed slave, p22,23,106

Weldon, Mr p8,12,13

Monday, 22 March 2010

Gilbert and Jean Rennie Schools

The Gilbert and Jean Rennie Schools were established in the early fifties in Lusaka, in the Kabulonga area. After independence the schools became Kabulonga Boys and Kabulonga Girls. You can see them quite clearly on Google Earth!  Check facebook for some groups.

Some kind soul (I think this is Chris Waller) has posted some school magazines from the Rennie days. There are many photos of sports teams, sports records, and names from the boys school from 1957-1962.  The magazines also include some great advertisements for local businesses, and some 'where are they now' type entries regarding students who have already left the school, 'Old Rennians'.

Saturday, 6 February 2010

Jungle Pathfinder - Chirupula Stephenson

I lapped up Kathaleen Rukavina's biography Jungle Pathfinder, about Chirupula Stephenson - it's very readable and often quite poetic. Mine is the first reprint, 1952.

John Edward Stephenson must have been born about 1874. The events we hear of cover about 1896-1952. Stephenson is another of those remarkable characters in the history of Northern Rhodesia. 

Picture from 'North of the Zambezi'
He is called Chirupula ('smiter'), from an occasion on which he had some men whipped.

We hear first how he worked as a telegraph operator in Kimberley. This was his first job after arriving from Northumberland (he grew up somewhere on the Tyne) in 1896. Due to a failing arm and a forced rest on medical grounds, he decides to seek greener pastures in the north. Rhodes was opening up the country, and this was his chance to seek his fortune outside of dull and dusty Kimberley.

Arriving ahead of the train north, in 1898, he resigned his new post in Bulawayo on the news that his father had died and left him a small legacy. He clearly had an appetite for the freedom of the road, and he was in love with Africa. More fun was to be had in exploring new areas, as yet unopened to the British. Blantyre would do as the starting point to launch this exploration, and that was his next trip.

He fell ill on the way with malaria, badly enough to require carrying in the last stages and to require some recuperation in a village. Here he received some native hospitality - being nurtured back to health in a hut by local women. This seems to have made a great impression on him. Later he wonders if it is this event that has led him down the path he eventually follows, marrying two local women polygamously and settling down for good.

After some time Stephenson has married his first wife, Loti, an Ngoni girl who had been abducted or rescued (her parents having been killed) by a scheming Yao man of the name Muwandiga, who planned to sell off her virginity.  Stephenson's helper Tambo asks if he wouldn't marry the girl to save her from this fate. Thinking that he can do this by bringing Loti into his compound, Stephenson agrees. He is quite shy around women, but his intentions to keep her as a wife in name only do not last long, and so begins a long love affair. They have their first child in Blantyre, almost as black as Loti, who is dark-skinned, and Loti fears the child is cursed.

After about two years working in Blantyre he has the opportunity to join Rhodes and the BSA's march into present day Zambia under Robert Codrington, and grabs the chance. They go to Fort Jameson (present day Chipata in Zambia) and plan to go west from there.  Stephenson finds himself lonely without Loti and so Tambo returns for her, making a round trip between Fort Jameson and Blantyre to bring her back.

Codrington becomes Administrator of North Eastern Rhodesia. Stephenson is hankering to head into the bush again, bored with telgraphy in Fort Jameson, and lets it be known he wants to be a collector of taxes! (Well, that's how the colonials worked: tax them, then they need a job to earn their shillings, then they are part of the cash economy. In fairness to them, they also saw this as a civilising thing, or a means of bringing Africans into a modern cash-based society. Interesting that an African in this book says a regular job is no better than slavery.)

Soon enough Stephenson has his chance to head west to the hook of the Kafue River, via Lala land, accompanied by one other white man, Francis Jones. The two of them are to visit chiefs and let them know the British are there and what they want. They come with the "gospel of the BSA", messages that the BSA has defeated their enemies (the Ngoni), that there should be no more war, that there should be no more witchcraft and that slavery must be abolished. (Arab slave traders are still marauding freely at this time.)

At least north of the Zambezi, chiefs are left to rule largely in the manner they have always done, and this has a lot to do with the later stability in the region.

Now a story that you would struggle to make up. The Lala people have a creation myth in which three god-men brothers divide up the fledgling world. To one, the east; to another the west. There is no north or south yet. The third brother is upset that he has no share. Very well, he concludes, I will turn into an animal and travel wherever I like, possessing all lands.

Stephenson and Jones enter the area with a pet baboon in tow, who has picked up the habit of smoking a pipe and sitting around with the men and behaving in an altogether human way, it seems. The Lalas see them coming all the way, and soon the rumour goes out that the three brothers have returned. These men don't behave like strangers; they smile as they go along. Everyone should give them what they ask.

So Stephenson and Jones open up Lala land without trouble....

Much of the rest of the book concerns Stephenson's relationships with his wives, Loti and Mwape, and with his starting his own business away from the BSA, after being passed over for promotion. Ultimately it is clear that Stephenson loves Africa, loves where he is, loves his wives and children. His reputation in white circles seems born mainly of a mixture of awe at his standing in the African community and distaste at his 'going native'. Amongst his African people he is a Lala god-chief. There are many quite amazing tales... but you'll have to read the book for the rest of them.

Stephenson has eight children: 3 by Mwape, and 5 by Loti. Alpha and Omega were twins.

Mulungushi Dam under construction in 1925 and at its opening
I've omitted a couple of lists - one of people involved in Mulungushi Dam, another of mining people.

Here are some names - often only one name is given:
NRR = Northern Rhodesia Rifles

Achiwachimo, p51, 55, 60, 62, 67,68, 101, 105-6
Albert, Prince of Belgium p154-6

Aosta, Duchess of p156
Ardelle, pen-pal, died of an overdose, p127,138,140, 160, 210,221
Ascenso, Dr (Italian) p155
Chalwe (Katanga's sister) p201-6
Chevalier, prince's valet p155
Chimbukuma p182, 191-2 (photo)
Chiwak p225, 235
Chiwali, Lala chief p108-9, 111
Chiwali, Mwape, second wife, p109-112, 115, 121-5, 136-152, 154, 162, 175-6, 181, 193, 200, 211, 215-6, 220, 224-8, 231-5,
Chiwebwu p226-8, 237
Codrington, Robert p59,63-65, 91, 113, 127, 134, 157
Collier, Bill prospector p107
Coryndon, Robert Thynne p118-121, 124-6
Dee and Ted, accompanying Ardelle, p212, 217-9
Goode, Richard p63
Gussie, p43
Esther, German girl Matopa siding, sister of Ida p35
Ida, German girl Matopa Siding, sister of Esther p35
Irwin, Dave (Roan mine) p200,207
Johnston, Harry p47-8
Jones, Francis Emilias Fletcher from Wales p65-67, 71, 85, 99, 102, 119-21
Kapopo, elehpant hunter p119
Kasokolo, J. p235
Kasuwika Mondwa (Chiwali's brother) p235
Katanga (King) and the Luanshya snake p200-7
Kawuna, Lamba woman p84
Lewanika p118-20
Loti, first wife p51-55, 109-11, 115-6, 122, 125, 136, 141-154, 159, 167, 175-6, 179-81, 193-5, 216, 244-48, 224-8

Louis, a fop from Cape Town, Esther's husband p35
Madan, A.C. writing Lala grammar, p107 143
Malfeytt, Colonel (Congo) p155
Mashiri, Lamba chief p84
Mondwa, father of Chiwali p146
Moor, Baron de (aide de camp of Albert) p154
Muller going south p213, 218
Muwandiga p194
Mweremuka p208 (photo)
Nalumango, N. p235

Stephenson, Alpha  p121, 176, 245, 248
Stephenson, Bessie d. malaria, p146, 176-7
Stephenson, Edward Mesanu, mailman,  p122-5, 1369, 151, 192 (photo), 222-3, 243-5
Stephenson, Horatio p176, 195, 245
Stephenson, Ivy p125, 139, 151, 159, 167, 211-13, 217, 223, 245
Stephenson, Omega p176, 245
Stephenson, Ossa John p176, 214
Stephenson, Otto p176, 223, 243-4
Stephenson, Torfrida, 176, 211-3, 217, 223, 237

McGee, John (NRR) (previously also Boer and Zulu), p161
Moore, Janiel (NRR) p164
Moses, accompanies him north from Kimberley p36
Mpeseni, Ngnoi p59, 119
Muwandiga, p51-55, 60, 62, 246
Na-Kalimba p116-7
Nyirenda, Tom, 'Mwana Lesa', witch hunter p184, 190-6
Pandafyalo p182, 191
Pisiscilli, Cpt p156
Scott, Herbert (NRR) p164
Shaiwira (I and II) p142, 147, 185-6, 196
Shearer, Moira, ballet dancer p115
Smuts, Jan C. p215, 240
Tambo, p50, 151, 144
Von Lettow, Vorbek (surrender in Rhodesia) p164-6
Yule, Robert W. p246


Jungle Pathfinder, the Biography of Chirupula Stephenson; Rukavina, Kathleen Stevens; Hutchinson, 1952
North of the Zambezi (photo), Anthony, L.F.G., 1953, Northern Rhodesia Information Department

Sunday, 17 January 2010

The man with the toothbrush in his hat (Westbeech)

By Richard Sampson (my edition 1972 Multimedia Publications Lusaka)

The man with a toothbrush in his hat: The story and times of George Copp Westbeech in Central Africa concerns one of the first white trader-hunters to settle in South Central Africa. Much of the narrative concerns George ('Joros') Westbeech's relationships with Coillard (who gave him a silver watch), Sipopa, Lewanika and Lobengula. We hear how Westbeech supported the establishment of Coillard's mission, aided Arnot and Holub, and kept peace between Lobengula and the tribes to his north, while thwarting the Jesuits. There is much information on the succession of chiefs.

Like most of his contemporaries in the region, he also loved his drink.

Time and again one reads about how African chiefs knew whom amongst the white traders they could trust, and Westbeech is one of those who won the affections of many, through his honesty and trustworthiness. Although qualified as a master mariner in Liverpool (Toxteth Park), he spent most of his life in southern central Africa and was fluent in the languages spoken in the area, which helped him to assimilate himself into the local communities. In fact, according to Selous he had a wife in every village. Holub records that he had 16 wives. However, according to Sampson, no descendants of his had been traced at the time this book was written.

Supposed to be the only photo
of Lobengula
He married an Afrikaaner girl, Cornelia Carolina Gronum in 1875, but the marriage only lasted a few years before Westbeech's drinking and, probably more significantly, the talk of his other 'wives' put an end to it.

He seems to have travelled abroad due to a combination of family tragedy - when he was aged 8 both his parents had died - and the impact of the American Civil war on the cotton trade and industry in Liverpool. Possibly also he was caught up in the excitement generated by David Livingstone's visit to Liverpool in 1857. He emigrated to Natal in 1862 aged 17 and soon pushed northwards, arriving in Matabeleland in 1863. Many of those going north were deserters, discharged soldiers and criminals. So many travelled Westbeech's road in the end that Sampson says the boundary between Botswana and Southern Rhodesia more or less followed it.

His trade was mainly in ivory, and he killed hundreds of elephants (in a good year maybe 700) each year. No wonder areas were later said to be hunted out.

Thomas Leask
Although a supporter of English expansion, it seems ironic given Westbeech's generally good relations with Lewanika and Lobengula that his virtual control over the area just north and south of the Zambezi around Panda-ma-tenga should have in the end assisted Rhodes and the BSA in acquiring mining rights and bringing in colonial rule.

He died 17 July 1888 and was buried at Vleischfontein.

Coillard party, including Aaron Waddell

  • Lobengula and assumed to be George Westbeech, p.9
  • Holub Mr&Mrs p56
  • 1884 Coillard party, p72
  • Lewanika 1885 p88
  • Mataa p95
  • Tatila p95

Here are the names... (I omit minor chiefs)

Adonis p39

Africa, Jan ('Klaas') p.35, 43, 126-7 d.1887
Akafuna - see Tatila
Arnot, Frederick Stanley p76,79,89,91-2, 137
Asikambwa, Mwanamala (Sipopa's steward) p64
Begehegge (Jesuit) p79
Bairn (Bauren), Robert (clerk) p53,57,60,63 d. Panda-ma-tenga 1875
Baldwin, William C. (trader) p.28,32
Banosha family p92
Barber, (Bulwayo) p53
Blockley, J. George (Sesheke) p.32,40,55,61,66,74,76,79,80,96,102,126-7 d.1887
Boyd, Dr p35
Bradshaw, Dr Benjamin p35,44,45, 65, 67, 73
Browns, Tati Store, post office p54
Byles (trader) p67
Chapman (trader) p.32
Clark, Elizabeth (shopkeeper, wife of George Copp)
Clark, Ted p128-9
Clarke, Richard (Shosong) p53-55
Coillard, Elise c. p72
Coillard, F. (& Mrs) p70-81, 87-92, 96-110, 128-35, 144-5
Coillard, Mrs p72
Copp, Elizabeth Clark, b 1816, m. 22/1/1840 Church of St Bride, d.1852 (TB),
Copp, George, from Devonshire to Toxteth Park, d. 1847 (m. Elizabeth Clark)
Cowley, Richard p62, d. Panda-ma-tenga 1875
Dardier, Dr Auguste (Swiss, Sesheke) p131-3 d.23 Feb 1888?
Dawson (Matabeleland, Shoshong, Bulawayo) p37,70,126-7,131,141
Depelchin (Jesuit) p79
Dobbie, Hugh (Australian, Tati) p64
Dorehill, George (hunter) p64-5
Fabi and wife Asserat - cook, p62
Fairbairn, James (Bulawayo) p17-19,50,83,87,96-7, 109, 126-7, 131, 141-4
Fairlie, William Frederick p62
Fekete p117-8
Fourie (transvaal) p49
Francis, William C. & Mrs, p54,57-60
Francis and Clarke 1872 p53
Frere, Sir Bartle p67 letter to Panda-ma-tenga
Frewen, Richard (posh traveller) p66-68, 76
Fry, Mr T. (trader, Shoshong) p120
Garland (Port Elizabeth) p44
Gosling, John (retired P&O chef) p51, 60, 65
Grandy, William (ex navy hunter) p64-5
Gronum (Grunim, Gronen), Antonie Johannes, (Marico) p48-9, from Beaufort West, farm Veldevreede (Transvaal) p51
Gronum, Cornelia Carolina p46 (photo), m. Westbeech (Zeerust), 1875, p49-69, 75, 144

Hartley, Henry (hunter) p.20
Hammar, August (German) p.14
Helm, C.D. (LMS) p141
Hewitt (trader) p63, 66 d.1876
Holub p55-61,77, 103, 108, 111-120, 135, 138-9
Horn, W (Klerksdorp) p38, 99,112
Horner, Lewis (hunter) p64-5 1877
Hughes, ? married younger sister of Elizabeth Clark, 1840
Hughes, Samuel John, b. c. 1842 (building contractor, Toxteth Park)
Isiah (Coillard) p72
Jalla, Revd Louis (Italian) p132, 145
Jantje p39
Jeanmairet, Dorwald (Swiss) p91 m. Elise Coillard 4/11/1885 p.100
Jesuits (Dutch and Belgian) p74-5,82,87,89,96,108,112
Jolly (trader) p55, d. Panda-ma-tenga 1875
Khama, p52,70,71,73-4,77
Kuruman (Mzilikazi's heir) b.c. 1828 p.20
Leask, Thomas (from Orkney), p.23,24 (photo), 33, 47, 69-70,82-3,86-7,97, 126-7, 131, 141-4
Lebebe p94
Leeb p117-8
Lekoguani (Lewanika's nephew) p110
Levi (Coillard) p72
Lewanika, 'Robosi', p45, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77-80, 84, 86, 89-94, 98-106, 109-112, 121-3, 128-131, 134-37, 145
Litia (son of Lewanika) p92,110,112
Livingstone, David p55,57, 137
Lobengula, p51.66,70-1,74,77,81,83,87,97,109, 124-27, 131, 133, 139-43
Lochner, Elliot p144-5
Mackenna, p45
Macleod, Cpt Norman (74th foot) p62
Mackintosh, Christina (Scots, 2nd wife??) p77
Magumpa p134, 136
Mahura, Jan (employee of Leask, Sipopa) p.30, 61,62
Mairet, Jean p72
Mapani p117-8
Maransian (aka Sikabenga) p100-2, p124, 133-8
Ma-Ruthi (Levi's wife), p72
Mashoku (Sipopa's executioner) p55,61
Mataa p73, 94, 96, 98-9
Middleton (Coillard's party) p72, 130
Middleton, George William (artisan, brick maker) p91, 144 
Moffat, John Smith (son of Robert) p142-3
Moffat, Robert p.74
Mokhole p135
Molemwa, p121-2
Montgomery, J.A. (landdrost, Zeerust) p48
Moremi (Lake Ngami) p94,99,122
Musson bros (traders) p144
Mwala (M'wala) trading induna p94
Mwanawina p64-66,73,92
Njambo p135
Oates, Frank (naturalist) p45, d.1875
Openshaw, G. p53, 57, 60
Patterson, (Captain) Robert p68-9

Philips, George Arthur 'Elephant' (Bulawayo) p.17-19, 35-37 , 40 , 50, 52, 69, 83, 86-7, 96-7, 131, 139, 141, 143-4
Pinto, Major Serpa p109
Price, Helmore (LMS) p.28
Rae, Fr p.107
Rees, Bowen (witness on Lobengula mining agreement) p.142
Reutter, Dr George (Paris Mission) p40, Inventor mosquito net 1902
Samaseku p94
Rhodes, Cecil p141-4
Rudd, (Rhodes representative) p142
Schinderhutte, Christoffel 'Stoffel' (German) p.35,44-45, 63, d.1875
Scholtz, Clark Burton (landdrost) p50
Scott (visiting falls) p67

Schulz, Aurel (German) p.14
Sekofella p98-9
Selembu (Sipopa's ngambela) p61, 94,98-100
Selous, p68-9,82, 137-9
Sergeaunt, John p68-9
Shepstone, Theophilus p.20
Sikabenga - see Maransian
Sipopa, p.28, 29 (sketch), 44, 55-74, 92, 94, 100, 105, 122, 124, 129, 137
Slack (trader, Shoshong) p63
Sousa, Filisberto Guedes (trader) p109
Stabb, Major p.13, 51
Stromboom, Jan Oscar (Norwegian-British)  p.44, 128
Tahahima p134
Tatila p95-100
Taylor, James (Klerksdorp) p69
Taylor and Leask's store (Klerksdorp) p.47
Theunissen (trader) p57
Thomas, Evan Morgan p69
Van Rooyen, Mr & Mrs, Tati store, p54
Vijlder, De (Jesuit) p79
Waddell, Aaron p72
Waddell, William p91
Wall, Henry (Griqua, Grahamstown), p35, 43
Walsh, Alexander (Second Queen's Surrey Regiment), Shoshong, Tati p53, 57-60, 74
Ware, Harry p98, 144
Watson, Frank p97, 119-20, 126
Westbeech, George, d. 1847 (husband of Elizabeth Clark)
Westbeech, George, b.5 Oct 1844, m. Cornelia Gronum 1875 d. 17 July 1888
Westbeech, Joseph, b.1847, d.1849 (enteritis)
Westbeech, Joseph (naval commander) c. 1758 - c.1811
Westbeech, Joseph (founder, mariner, tide waiter) c.1800 - c1848 (at sea?)
Weyers, Jan (Panda-ma-tenga) p137
Wilson, B. 'Matabele' p139, 141
Wood, George (trader) p86 d.1882
Zoldner (Sollner), Oswald (Austrian, Holub's party, killed) p115-17

Popular Posts